Interpersonal communication (IPC) is the tailored exchange or sharing of information, thoughts, ideas and feelings between two or more people to address behavioral determinants of health. It is influenced by attitudes, values, social norms and the individuals’ immediate environment. IPC can be one way or two way. It can also be verbal, non-verbal or both. Types of IPC include one-on-one interactions (at clinic or community), small group interactions, large group discussions, hotlines, supportive supervision visits, peer education, parent-child or inter-spousal communication.
Audience segmentation is fundamental to social and behavior change interventions. Segmentation serves to align messages, message delivery channels, products, and services with the needs and preferences of an intended audience to maximize program impact. Segmentation divides a population or market into subgroups that have, or are perceived to have, meaningfully similar characteristics, and significant differences from other subgroups. Audiences may be segmented based on demographic, attributional, psychographic, behavioral, or other key variables. Effective segmentation recognizes that the behavior change problem of interest may vary by segment and that different groups will respond differently to social and behavior change (SBC) approaches.
A monitoring and evaluation (M&E) plan is a document that helps to track and assess the results of the interventions throughout the life of a program. It is a living document that should be referred to and updated on a regular basis. While the specifics of each program’s M&E plan will look different, they should all follow the same basic structure and include the same key elements.
Logic models are program planning tools that define the inputs, outputs, outcomes of a program in order to explain the thinking behind program design and show how specific program activities lead to desired results. Defining inputs, outputs, and outcomes early in program planning ensures a deliberate flow of activity to results. Logic models are visual tools that can help programs create action plans for activities. They also help program implementers see the way in which the individual pieces fit into larger program objectives and goals.
An audience analysis is a process used to identify and understand the priority and influencing audiences for a SBCC strategy. The priority and influencing audiences are those people whose behavior must change in order to improve the health situation.
Audience segmentation is a key activity within an audience analysis. It is the process of dividing a large audience into smaller groups of people - or segments - who have similar needs, values or characteristics. Segmentation recognizes that different groups will respond differently to social and behavior change communication (SBCC) messages and interventions.
A creative brief is a short, written document used by project managers and creative professionals to guide the development of creative materials (e.g. drama, film, visual design, narrative copy, advertising, websites, slogans) to be used in communication campaigns. Usually, it is no more than two pages in length, sets the direction, defines the audience(s), focuses on the key messages and shows the desired results for an SBCC campaign or materials.
Pretesting is the process of bringing together members of the priority audience to react to the components of a communication campaign before they are produced in final form. Pre-testing measures the reaction of the selected group of individuals and helps determine whether the priority audience will find the components - usually draft materials understandable, believable and appealing.
A situation analysis or environmental analysis is the fundamental first step in the social and behavior change communication change (SBCC) process. It involves a systematic collection and study of health and demographic data, study findings and other contextual information in order to identify and understand the specific health issue to be addressed. It examines the current status of the health issue as well as the social, economic, political and health context in which the health issue exists and establishes the vision for the SBCC program.
Materials are a primary means by which health programs deliver social and behavior change communication (SBCC) messages. There are many types of SBCC materials, including printed brochures, the script for a television advertisement, a guide for facilitating a group discussion, a Facebook page or an Internet-based game. Materials development brings together the most effective messages with materials for the best combination of channels – the channel mix - in order to reach and influence the priority audiences.